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Tautology in Maths - Definition, Truth Table and Examples

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The truth values of p⇒ (p∨q) is true for all the value of individual statements. Therefore, it is a tautology. Example 3: Find if ~A∧B ⇒ ~ (A∨B) is a tautology or not. Solution: Given A and B are two statements. Therefore, we can write the truth table for the given statements as; A.

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Tautology | Definition & Facts | Britannica

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Tautology, in logic, a statement so framed that it cannot be denied without inconsistency. The notion was first developed in the early 20th century by the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce, and the term itself was introduced by the Austrian-born British philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein.

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Tautologies | Math Goodies

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The compound statement p ~p consists of the individual statements p and ~p. In the truth table above, p ~p is always true, regardless of the truth value of the individual statements. Therefore, we conclude that p ~p is a tautology.. Definition: A compound statement, that is always true regardless of the truth value of the individual statements, is defined to be a tautology.

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Definition and Examples of Tautologies in English

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Tautologies in Logic "In common parlance, an utterance is usually said to be tautologous if it contains a redundancy and says the same thing twice over in different words--e.g., ' John is the father of Charles and Charles is a son of John.' In logic, however, a tautology is defined as a statement that excludes no logical possibilities--'Either it is raining or it is not raining.'

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Six Common Tautologies: Are You Using Them? | Lingoda

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These kinds of tautologies are self-cancelling. In other words, the sentence is always true since it includes both possibilities. Lastly, the phrase "It is what it is" is a deliberate tautology.

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Examples of Tautology: Meaning and Common Forms

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Examples of tautologies in literature can show them at their best. They may be used for dramatic or comedic effect. " To be or not to be, that is the question." - Hamlet, William Shakespeare. "But the fact is I was napping, and so gently you came rapping, / And so faintly you came tapping, tapping at my chamber door."

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What are tautologies and contradictions? - Mvorganizing.org

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What are tautologies and contradictions? You can think of a tautology as a rule of logic. The opposite of a tautology is a contradiction, a formula which is "always false". In other words, a contradiction is false for every assignment of truth values to its simple components. Therefore, the formula is a tautology.

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2.10: Tautologies, Contradictions, and Contingent ...

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As philosophers would say, tautologies are true in every possible world, whereas contradictions are false in every possible world. Consider a statement like: Matt is either 40 years old or not 40 years old. That statement is a tautology, and it has a particular form, which can be represented symbolically like this: ...

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What are tautologies and contradictions? - Quora

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A tautology repeats the subject in the predicate so that the predicate really adds no information, though it may be useful for emphasis. "Fair is fair." "It ain't over 'til it's over." Those are examples of tautologies. A less obvious example migh...

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'It Is What It Is' and Other Tautologies

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Clause tautologies are not the only kind. Noun tautologies assert that something—some noun—is itself: "food is food," "tires are tires," "war is war," "a win is a win." The grammar denies the existence of difference within a category, seeming to say that all foods (all tires, wars, wins, etc.) are the same.

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Are all logical statements tautologies? - Quora

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I assume you're referring to the Tractarian idea. Take the following proposition: The sign for A is 'A'. Wittgenstein's idea here is that nothing is being said of any substance with such a statement. What appears to be a meta-linguistic propositio...

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Tautology: Definition and Examples | LiteraryTerms.net

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Often, tautologies are used unknowingly and editors work to delete tautologies in order to create writing that is clear and that uses just the right amount of words. II. Examples of Tautology. Some tautologies are frequent offenders in everyday conversation. Here are a few common examples of tautological phrases: Example 1

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Tautology | Definition of Tautology by Merriam-Webster

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Tautology definition is - needless repetition of an idea, statement, or word. How to use tautology in a sentence.

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Are all Tautologies idle? - roangelo.net

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The Method of Tautologies. The method of tautologies in ethics serves to make disguised folly obvious folly (cf. PI § 464: disguised nonsense and obvious nonsense) by contrasting the concepts 'good' and 'bad' = 'evil', when talking about moral virtue (ethics). In other words, Plato's method is to look at the grammars of the antithetical words 'good' and 'bad' in the context of ethics, by ...

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Tautologies and Contradictions - javatpoint

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Tautologies. A proposition P is a tautology if it is true under all circumstances. It means it contains the only T in the final column of its truth table. Example: Prove that the statement (p q) ↔ (∼q ∼p) is a tautology. As the final column contains all T's, so it is a tautology.

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Tautology In Math | Definition, Logic Symbols, & Examples

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Tautologies are typically found in the branch of mathematics called logic. They use their own special symbols: p p, ~p ~ p and q q all signify the statements, with p p generally reserved for the first one and either ~p ~ p or q q for the second statement. You can "translate" tautologies from ordinary language into mathematical expressions.

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Tautology (language) - Wikipedia

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Tautology (language) In literary criticism and rhetoric, a tautology is a statement which repeats an idea, using near-synonymous morphemes, words or phrases, effectively "saying the same thing twice". Tautology and pleonasm are not consistently differentiated in literature. Like pleonasm, tautology is often considered a fault of style when ...

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Truth Tables, Tautologies, and Logical Equivalences

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Truth Tables, Tautologies, and Logical Equivalences. Mathematicians normally use a two-valued logic: Every statement is either True or False.This is called the Law of the Excluded Middle.. A statement in sentential logic is built from simple statements using the logical connectives , , , , and .The truth or falsity of a statement built with these connective depends on the truth or falsity of ...

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Tautology (logic) - Wikipedia

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Tautologies are a key concept in propositional logic, where a tautology is defined as a propositional formula that is true under any possible Boolean valuation of its propositional variables. A key property of tautologies in propositional logic is that an effective method exists for testing whether a given formula is always satisfied (equiv ...

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Tautologies Must Not Be Dismissed | Steve Patterson

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Tautologies are arguably the most important propositions in all of philosophy. They cannot be dismissed without throwing out a foundational tool for critical thinking. The first mistake is simple: not all tautologies are created equal. Some are trivial; it's true. "A fish is a fish", by itself, doesn't tell you anything useful.

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How Can I Check My History Of Videos Watched On TikTok?

TikTok prevalence has soared of late, and it isn't difficult to understand the reason why. With many dynamic clients on TikTok, the stage has acquired a ton of consideration from content makers and watchers throughout the planet. There are times when we unintentionally revive the TikTok feed while watching a video and blast afterward! The video is gone, and you have another arrangement of recordings running on the page. The following are 5 stages to see your watch history on TikTok:  Explore to "Protection"  Explore to "Download your information."  Solicitation information document and download it following 24 hours  Sign in to your current TikTok account  Download your information and open the "Video Browsing History" document  Explore Protection First and foremost, open TikTok on your cell phone.  You will not have the option to utilize TikTok in a work area as it doesn't contain your settings.  When you're on TikTok, tap on the "Me" symbol on the base route bar.  Tapping on the "Me" symbol will carry you to your profile.  You'll see three dabs on the top route bar on your profile.  Tap on the three dabs to open the settings and security menu.  After you've tapped on the three dabs, you'll land on the settings and security menu.  On the menu, you'll see a few choices, for example, "Oversee account", "Protection", "Security and login", and the sky is the limit from there.  Since you're hoping to demand your information record, tap on the "Security" choice under the "Record" header.  It will open your security settings, where you'll have the option to track down your personalization and information.  Continue to the subsequent stage to figure out how to track down your personalization and information.  Explore to Download Your Information  After you've tapped on "Protection", you'll land on the security page.  On the protection page, you'll see three headings, including "Discoverability", "Personalization and information", and "Security".  Under the "Personalization and information" heading, you'll see the "Personalization and information" choice.  Tap on the "Personalization and information" choice to see your personalization and information on the application.  Tapping on the "Personalization and information" choice will open the "Customize and information" page.  On the "Customize and information" page, you'll see three choices, including "Customized promotions", "Advertisements from outsider advertisement organizations", and "Download your information".  The "Customized promotions" permit TikTok to serve customized advertisements to you, dependent on your activity on and off the application.  You can handicap that choice if you would rather not see customized promotions.  Furthermore, the "Advertisements from outsider promotion organizations" choice permits outsider advertisement organizations to serve promotions to you utilizing a restricted measure of your information.  Ultimately, the "Download your information" choice permits you to get a duplicate of your information on TikTok.  Tap on "Download your information" to go to the "Download your information" page.  Solicitation Information Record and Download it Following 24 Hours Whenever you've tapped on "Download your information", you'll land on the "Solicitation information" tab.  You can demand your information record on the "Solicitation information" tab whenever.  You'll have the option to download your profile (your username, profile photograph, profile depiction, contact data).  Likewise, you'll have the option to download your movement (counting your watch history) and application settings.  Tap on "Solicitation information record" to demand your information document, then, at that point, trust that 24 hours for it will show up.  After you've mentioned your information document, tap on the "Download information" tab.  Rather than the "Download" button, you'll see a "Forthcoming" button.  The "Forthcoming" button implies that your information is as yet being handled by TikTok.  Your information document will ordinarily show up within 24 hours.  Meanwhile, get off of TikTok and accomplish something useful.  When your information document has shown up, the "Forthcoming" button will be changed into a "Download" button on the "Download information" tab.  Tap on "Download" to download your information record.  Note that the record might be accessible for 4 days, so make a point to download it immediately.  Continue to the subsequent stage to figure out how to download your information document.  Sign in to Your Current TikTok Account After you've tapped on the "Download" button, you'll be diverted to the login screen of TikTok (on a program).  Sign in to your current TikTok account utilizing the choice you've used to make it.  For instance, if you've utilized Facebook to make your TikTok account, tap on "Sign in with Facebook".  Then again, if you've utilized Google to make your TikTok account, tap on "Sign in with Google," all things considered.  You may have to check your record in the wake of signing in.  For instance, you want to confirm your Facebook account on the off chance that you've signed in utilizing Facebook.  To confirm your record, tap on the "Check and Download" button.  It is a compulsory advance for you to download your information.  Continue to the last advance to figure out how to download your information and track down your watch history on TikTok  Conclusion Infrequently, you'll watch a video on your "For You" page that stands apart from the rest. On the off chance that you neglected to like it, or you've revived your "For You" page coincidentally, it's elusive it back.
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Simple Tips to Track Location of Someone's TikTok Account

TikTok is a well-known video-sharing interpersonal organization, and let's face it – TikTok is habit-forming. It has a lot of clients, with some of them taking cover behind the illusion of their creative mind that they are unremarkable and their area is obscure.  It is additionally bolstered by how TikTok handles area, which relies upon the area of your SIM number and how they keep one's IP address stowed away. Shockingly, without exertion from their end, they are not quite so unknown as they might suspect, and you can get the IP address of any TikTok client given you can persuade him to complete straightforward activities online through an unquestionable requirement have hacking expertise – social designing.  You can observe the area of a client through their IP address. The IP address shows you where the gadget is found and from which area the client is working sure applications or sites. It would be best if you thought it feasible to follow somebody's area through TikTok.  1. Track Down Location on TikTok TikTok has turned into a habit-forming web-based media webpage with billions of individuals utilizing it for sharing substance. As referenced before, TikTok esteems the client's security by keeping their IP address and other individual subtleties stowed away.  Nonetheless, bringing the IP address isn't quite so troublesome as it might sound. It's a cakewalk, given that you have the right friendly design abilities. You need to persuade the individual to execute a couple of straightforward systems to track down their area on TikTok.  Open the TikTok IP Address Finder by i-Staunch and enter the TikTok username. Tap on the Find button, and you will get the IP address. Presently you can utilize it to follow the area of somebody's TikTok account on Google Map.  2. IP Grabber As the name recommends, IP grabber is a site that assists you with creating a short connection that unveils the area of the objective. You should create a connection, send it to the objective client on TikTok, and get them to tap on it. The best part is you don't need to spend a solitary dime or utilize any specialized abilities to get everything done. The site can utilize and create an abbreviated URL that is very basic. Notwithstanding, the technique works when the objective client follows you back on TikTok. Converse with him for some time, and send the abbreviated URL. The second the client taps on the URL, they will be diverted to the Gratify site. While this technique works for all, realize that it is helpful for individuals who are unconscious of the abbreviated URL stunt and how it is utilized to gather the IP address. Many individuals know about this little stunt and won't ever tap on the URL. The well-informed individuals can likewise utilize the instruments to know the genuine reason for the abbreviated URL and what's taken cover behind it. You could likewise set up your site to sound certified. However, that will be expensive and tedious. Furthermore, there's as yet a possibility the client won't do what you mean them to do.  3. IP Address without Their Knowledge or Permission It may appear to be an attack of protection from the outset; however, the IP address of a client isn't private data. It is legitimate to get somebody's IP address as long as you don't plan to utilize it for illicit purposes, for example, bothering the client or following them.  You should foster your site disconnected first, regardless of whether utilizing a programming language to create without any preparation or utilizing a substance the board framework to finish that. Ensure the site offers genuine significant data so they will not presume anything. For each web demand sent, the IP address of the gadget sending the solicitation is logged, and in that capacity, you need to keep a log, everything being equal, and you are all set.  In the wake of fostering the site, you can feel free to have it. I will encourage you to utilize a free facilitating administration to reduce expenses. You can look at this page to find a portion of the free facilitating suppliers accessible.  In contrast to the facilitating, I will prompt against utilizing free spaces. Free area augmentation could look peculiar and raise an eyebrow. All things being equal, purchase a modest website space name and use it.  With everything set up, you can get the TikTok client to visit your site. When that occurs, you can check the server log and get the IP address of the client.  You want to monitor the time the client visits the site and ensure you don't connect to many individuals all at once. Notwithstanding, if the site requires enrollment and clients can enter their subtleties, this doesn't make a difference. Conclusion This article clarified the routes to track and observe somebody's IP address from TikTok. Utilize the above strides for these instruments to follow the IP address of somebody's TikTok.
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Frequent Error Users Often Meet When Logging In

Despite how much users try to avoid making an error, it is impossible to eliminate user errors. Here we will discuss frequent errors users often meet when logging in.  For most people, logging into sites or apps is standard and a part of their daily routine.  That's why we all intuitively do internet surfing until something goes wrong and an error occurs from our side. For example, we forget our password, username, or the email address through which we signed up. Wrong Username or password When users face a log-in problem, there is a high chance that they have entered a wrong combination of a username and password. It leads to multiple attempts before a successful login. However, it develops fair enough frustration for users, which resulted in their instant quiet.  Furthermore, the Generic responses such as 'Your email or password doesn't match' usually do not provide meaningful feedback for users. It does not allow them to fix user's problems instantly. On the other hand, users, who are not logged in yet, would read, "One of these two fields is wrong but I shall not tell you which one."  That's why it reduces conversion rates and engagement. However, the user should get help via a login task efficiently and effectively. That's why the response should explain exactly not matching correctly that is the password or the email address. Users have Changed Their Password Users make an error while getting so used to typing in their old password that they have forgotten they changed it. As a result, when they see an error message "Your password is incorrect," they simply believe that they're mistyped the password. What users required, in this case, is a reminder that their password was changed.  Rather than giving users a "Your password is incorrect" error message, they need to know how long ago they changed their password. Therefore, this kind of message should only appear when users type in their old password. Most of the time, users mistyped a password then the system displays a regular 'Wrong password' error message to them. Multiple Log-in Errors Users have multiple sign-in options, for example, sign-in through Facebook, Twitter, or Google+ on a site or app. Users might not remember which service they used to sign up for, or they used one at all. Therefore, they hesitate or fail to log in.   On the other hand, if users choose the wrong provider, rather than signing in to the service, they probably end up signing up unintentionally, thereby creating a new account. A site or app capable of perfectly matching accounts from different services but there is no complete guarantee of whether a social media account belongs to the same person. Therefore, for solving multiple log-in problems, users should keep logged in until they explicitly sign out. The fewer people indeed need to log in, the fewer sign-in problems users will have. On the other hand, a further better solution is that remember users when they return. Quora removes the requirement for you to enter a password while re-logging into the service. All you need to ensure is to enter the website and click on your profile picture or name on the log-in screen. Moreover, these solutions have a downside, as well. Such as these solutions work only for people who return to the website while using the same browser. If users log-in by using a different browser or device, this technique will not be much helpful. Determine a 'Forgot Your Password' Flow Like everyone at least once in their life, forget where they left their wallet or keys, users will be likely to forget their password. Therefore, this kind of situation must be handled better by the login process. Furthermore, Login forms offer a 'Forgot Password' link to reset the password for the user. Do not let this link appear after the user clicks on the password field or has already entered the wrong password. Do not allow users to enter their email address again on a forgot password page if they already entered their email address. Then use the forgotten password feature also. Do not send the current or temporary password through an email.  The correct step to send a reset password link is to send it to the registered email address only. Furthermore, make sure that the reset password email sends as fast as possible because users might get disturbed when they will have to wait to login. The reason is that the forgotten password email takes too long to arrive. If users can't access their email, then the full options in this situation will only depend on your kind of service. It makes sense for you to have a few security questions upfront. Therefore, use them as an access point and make it easy if users forget their password. Casekidukaan is one of the best brands about mobile cover in the field. Casekidukaan provides variety of types accessories for phones and watches of many top brands as Iphone, One Plus… Besides the basic designs fit for all people, they also provide many products with unique designs. Bring for your phone the most impressive designer cases. More than just an accessory to protect your devices, it can show your personality and own taste.
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Face ID VS Fingerprint: Which Is More Secure?

Our data is the most precious asset for us. We have to keep it safe from cybercriminals. Therefore, we must know about security apps to protect our phone and personal data. Now the question is: Face ID VS Fingerprint; Which is more secure? And which one is to be chosen?  Fingerprints are the security key Rather than most of us rely on two critical elements of our fingerprint data that only we possess and no one else. There are two main options for those who are looking for an app to secure their devices that entirely rely on Face ID. As we know, face ID has its benefits as well as drawbacks, fingerprint also owns many benefits, drawbacks you should know. The Apple iPhone has long had Touch ID. It has a fingerprint sapphire crystal sensor which unlocks the phone only if the pattern matches. This kind of match used not just the whirl of your fingerprint. It also includes the location of your skin's clear pores to ensure that it was you who was trying to access the device. However, Apple removed the home button with the iPhone X, which can open your phone with a fingerprint. Despite it, Apple offered something unique that is Face ID.  The security level of Face ID Apple demanded a sleek front phone and removed the home button that had been the base of the device since its starting. Then it offered an alternative that was more simplistic, but few argue less secure. The owners of the mobile point at camera, face, and unlock their smartphones rather than using a fingerprint. Furthermore, it is designed to be a friction-free process. However, this one is considered less secure. Research has proven that it is possible for strangers who have similar facial features got success in gaining access to your phone. The reason is simple because the technology works on a lower resolution.  Unlike fingerprints, facial features are not at all unique.  Researchers somehow managed to use social media pictures to spoof facial recognition security. It was done even before Face ID was released. This process is more straightforward than creating fake fingerprints. However, face recognition is considered to be better than no protection at all, but it is not relatively more secure than Touch ID. Reliability It is improbable to have as catastrophic consequences as many fears. Most accidental unlockings are likely to happen between family members instead of a criminal managing to obtain access. Therefore, the reality is that facial recognition is less reliable than fingerprints for gaining access to phones and devices.  On the other hand, fingerprints have also proven to be get hacked. The fingerprint is strong enough to protect users from ordinary or opportunistic attackers which is substantially better than nothing. Moreover, if you are after quick and easy access to your phone as well as happy to trade off some security for that, then, in this case, relying on Face ID is a good alternative. However, you have to be just careful while storing vital information on your phone, which anyone could access. Authentic Security System Both Face ID, as well as fingerprint, is secured as declared by Apple. However, for the most part, that is true too. It is sporadic that a random person could unlock your phone. However, that is not the only type of attack to worry about it. While using different biometric authentication methods; Face ID and Touch ID are very similar in functioning.  When you try to log in to your iPhone either by pointing your face at the camera on the front, or you put your finger on the touch sensor, the phone immediately compares the biometric data. It reaches and detects the data that is saved in the Secure Enclave. Furthermore, there is also available a separate processor that's entire purpose is to keep your phone safe and secure. Your iPhone unlocks if the face or fingerprint matches. If not, the message will be prompted to enter your passcode. Nothing Protects You from the Government Agencies Nevertheless, any security app can ever truly protect you from a determined government agency with virtually unlimited resources who want to get access to your phone. Not only can they legally bound you for using Touch ID or Face ID to unlock your phone, but they also have access to tools like the GreyKey. Greeley can crack any iOS device passcode that will make fingerprint and Face ID useless for you. Fingerprint and Face ID are incredibly convenient, and if they are backed up with a strong passcode, then it is secure for daily use by everyone. However, they might not protect you for long if you are the target of a determined hacker or government agency.  Conclusion Both fingerprint and face ID is secure, but the fingerprint is more secure as compare to face ID. Anyone who has the same facial features as you can get access to your phone if you are using FaceID. Fingerprint ID is said to be unique as compare to FaceID.
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